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FlashMaster Electronic Teaching Device

National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
The Flashmaster, introduced in 2002 for both school and home use, was designed to be an electronic alternative to flash cards in arithmetic teaching. It not only gave examples to be solved, but allowed for timed tests and tracked student performance.

The lightweight instrument has a gray plastic case. One selects the learning activity desired by pressing one of the six yellow buttons near the top. Three white buttons allow one to choose the time limit, the arithmetic operation, and the level of the activity. The time and the level, along with the problem to be solved, appear on the screen below. Students enter answers by pressing the digit buttons across the bottom.

According to the cardboard box, the instrument was "DESIGNED, DEVELOPED & MANUFACTURED FOR FLASHMASTER LLC (/) BY ACCENT ENTINEERING (LUBBOCK, TEXAS) and TRONICBROS. (HONG KONG)." Flashmaster LLC has an address in Jackson Hole, Wyoming.

Teaching Abacus, or Numeral Frame

National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

Structural Arithmetic I, Workbook for Stern Teaching Apparatus

National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Documentation received with Catherine Stern's apparatus for teaching arithmetic suggests how her ideas changed over time. This colorful publication from 1965 describes a relatively late version of her teaching apparatus, as sold by Houghton Mifflin. Some exercises in the workbook have been completed. Stern's coauthors were Margaret B. Stern and Toni S. Gould.

For Stern's apparatus, see 2005.0229.01 and 2005.0229.02. For closely related books, see 2005.3100.06 and 2005.3100.08.

Structural Arithmetic 2, Workbook for Stern Teaching Apparatus

National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Documentation received with Catherine Stern's apparatus for teaching arithmetic suggests how her ideas changed over time. This colorful publication from 1965 describes a relatively late version of her teaching apparatus, as sold by Houghton Mifflin. Some exercises in the workbook have been completed. Stern's coauthors were Margaret B. Stern and Toni S. Gould.

For Stern's apparatus, see 2005.0229.01 and 2005.0229.02. For closely related books, see 2005.3100.04 and 2005.3100.08.

Structural Arithmetic 3, Workbook for Stern Teaching Apparatus

National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Documentation received with Catherine Stern's apparatus for teaching arithmetic suggests how her ideas changed over time. This colorful publication from 1965 describes a relatively late version of her teaching apparatus, as sold by Houghton Mifflin. The workbook has some loose pages. Stern's coauthors were Margaret B. Stern and Toni S. Gould.

For Stern's apparatus, see 2005.0229.01 and 2005.0229.02. For closely related books, see 2005.3100.04 and 2005.3100.06.

Early Teaching Machine of B. F. Skinner

National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
In the years following World War II, American school enrollments boomed. One parent, the psychologist and Harvard University faculty member B. F. Skinner, noted that students might benefit from machines that gave extra opportunities for drill. Skinner designed this instrument to teach elementary arithmetic. The wooden box has a black plastic knob in front. The hinged lid extends over the middle of the top, and covers a punched paper tape. A window in this lid reveals one problem at a time. In front of the window is a set of six levers that allows one to set a number in a hole, to answer a question. A mark on the lid of the machine reads: TEACHING MACHINE EXHIBITED IN MARCH, 1954 (/) AT THE UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH [/] CONFERENCE ON “PSYCHOLOGY AND THE BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES”. Compare to other Skinner teaching machines, 1984.1069.01 and MA.335539. Reference: Alexander Rutherford, Beyond the Box: B. F. Skinner’s Technology of Behavior from Laboratory to Life, 1950s–1970s, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2009, esp. pp. 26-33.

Numbers In Colour, A New Method of Teaching Arithmetic In Primary Schools

National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
During the 1950s, the Belgian teacher Emile-Georges Cuisenaire designed a set of rods to teach about numbers and basic arithmetic. Caleb Gattegno popularized his methods in Great Britain and the United States. This small paperbound book by Cuisenaire and Gattegno first appeared in 1954, was in its third edition by 1958, and was reprinted frequently in the next few years. This is a 1961 printing.

For a set of Cuisenaire rods, see 1987.0542.01. For other related documentation see 1987.0542.03 through 1987.0542.07.

Texas Instruments Little Professor Teaching Calculator

National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Introduced in mid-1976, the Little Professor is a non-printing electronic calculator modified to present simple arithmetic problems. A correct answer prompts another problem on the eight-digit display. An error delivers the message, "EEE." The colorful keyboard shows a professor with whiskers and glasses. The red light-emitting diode screen, in combination with the top of the instrument, looks like a mortar board. This example has buttons that allow one to set the level of problems, as well as an on/off button on the front rather than the side of the machine. These features were introduced in a version of the machine made from 1978 onward. Reference: P. A. Kidwell, A. Ackerberg-Hastings, and D. L. Roberts, Tools of American Mathematics Teaching, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008, pp. 261–262.

Teaching Problems

Archives of American Art
Note : 2 p. : handwritten, ill. ; 28 x 22 cm.

24 Game, Single Digits, a Card Game for Teaching Arithmetic

National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
For decades, teachers drilled American school children using flash cards that gave simple arithmetic problems. The advent of inexpensive electronic calculators in the 1970s made it possible to do much routine arithmetic automatically. To teach school children the meaning of basic operations, new devices were introduced, including this form of flash card. In the 24 Game, the answer to the problem is always 24. A player’s task is to find out how numbers can be combined in simple arithmetic operations to reach this result.

According to the instructions, players select 12 to 24 cards to place in a pile at the center of a table. A player who sees a solution to the top card touches it. If his or her solution is correct, the player wins the card. Once it is taken, the next card is in play. The combinations on the cards are classed as easy (one white dot), medium (two red dots) or difficult (three gold dots). Once all the cards have been played, players add up the point value of their cards, with one point for each easy card, two for medium cards, etc. The original set reportedly had 24, 48, and 24 of these kinds of cards. This example has only 14 easy cards, 34 medium ones, and 23 difficult ones remaining.

There are also two flat paper sleeves, each of which holds a card. The sleeve covers one quadrant. When cards in sleeves are used, the goal of the game becomes finding one number that can make 24 on all of the cards (ignoring the numbers covered by the sleeve). A complete set includes four sleeves. This set also includes an instruction leaflet.

A mark on the top of the box reads: 24 (/) GAME (/) SINGLE DIGITS (/) EDITION (/) Builds Fast Minds TM. A mark on the side of the box and on the instructions reads: Suntex International, Inc., 118 North Third St., Easton, PA 18042, [copyright symbol] 1989, 1993, 1996. Another mark on the side of the box reads: MADE IN THE USA. A mark on the bottom of the box reads: #3397.

Teaching ELL Students– Teaching Academic Vocabulary

Smithsonian Science Education Center
"Quick Tips: Resources for Teachers” is a series of short videos providing down-to-earth advice and instructional tips to teachers of STC™, our signature science curriculum. Each “Quick Tip” offers practical suggestions by experienced teachers for handling materials or managing classrooms in science investigations.

Will Barnet teaching

Archives of American Art
1 photographic print : b&w ; 21 x 26 cm. Will Barnet teaching in the League Goapher Room, ca. 1939.
Published in: Archives of American Art Journal v. 13, no. 2, p. 26

Drank DuMond teaching

Archives of American Art
1 photographic print : b&w ; 7 x 11 cm.

Identification on verso (handwritten): ca. 1927, Father teaching Margaree - N.S.; The sad youth seated on the left was my beau Howard French. Eliza looks plenty sad too!

Skinner Teaching Machine

National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
From the 1920s, psychologists have explored ways to automate teaching. In the 1950s, the psychologist B. F. Skinner of Harvard University suggested that techniques he had developed for training rats and pigeons might be adopted for teaching humans. He used this apparatus teaching a Harvard course in natural sciences.

The machine is a rectangular wooden box with a hinged metal lid with windows. Various paper discs fit inside, with questions and answers written along radii of the discs. One question at a time appears in the window nearer the center. The student writes an answer on a paper tape to the right and advances the mechanism. This reveals the correct answer but covers his answer so that it may not be changed.

Skinner's "programmed learning" was refined and adopted in many classrooms in the 1960s. It underlies techniques still used in instruction for the office, the home and the school.

Alan Paton Teaching

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Alan Paton Teaching Two Girls, Natal. Photograph by Constance Stuart Larrabee, Feb. 1949.

This photograph was taken when Constance Stuart was on assignment for Harper's Bazaar, an American magazine. Her task was to create a portfolio inspired by the seminal book "Cry, The Beloved Country," which had brought the conditions in South Africa to the attention of the world. The author of the book was the South African writer Alan Paton (1903-1988). It was published in the United States in 1948. Alan Paton accompanied her on the assignment. In June 1949, Harper's Bazaar published an essay by Alan Paton entitled "A Letter from South Africa in which Alan Paton Guides you to his Corner of the 'Beloved Country'." Six photographs by Constance Stuart accompany the essay.

There are no prints of this negative in the Constance Stuart Larrabee Collection. EEPA produced an 8x10 study print for reference purposes.

The cataloging of the Constance Stuart Larrabee Collection was supported by a grant from The Smithsonian Women's Committee.

Kenyon Cox teaching drawing

Archives of American Art
1 photographic print : b&w ; image 11 x 17 cm. on board 21 x 26 cm.

Films for Teaching Ethnicity

Smithsonian Libraries

What Bones Teach Us

Smithsonian Libraries

U.S. Museums- Learning, Teaching, and Expanding

Smithsonian Education
A presentation about recent history in the relationship/intersection of the Smithsonian and the museum profession. Pamela M. Henson, Historian, Institutional History Division, Smithsonian Institution Archives Doug Evelyn, former Deputy Director, National Museum of the American Indian Mary Alexander, Director, Museum Advancement Program, Maryland Historical Trust (recorded on: 12/13/2006)

Teaching ELL Students– Small Group Work

Smithsonian Science Education Center
"Quick Tips: Resources for Teachers” is a series of short videos providing down-to-earth advice and instructional tips to teachers of STC™, our signature science curriculum. Each “Quick Tip” offers practical suggestions by experienced teachers for handling materials or managing classrooms in science investigations.

Teaching Strategies for Museums: Graphic Organizers

Smithsonian Education
Graphic Organizers, such as charts, tables, and concept maps, are tools that help students find key ideas and relationships among ideas. They are particularly effective in a museum setting. As an alternative to the often-used field trip scavenger hunt, developing a graphic organizer for a museum exhibition focuses students on answering historical questions posed by an exhibition rather than simply locating objects and reading labels. Moreover, a museum graphic organizer encourages students to identify themes, note connections, and link specific observations to larger concepts. Graphic organizers can be used for any age group and learning level. Based on your goals for the lesson, simplify the graphic organizer or increase its complexity to allow for sub-themes and supporting details. For students learning English, add visual aids and translation exercises. From Smithsonian Source, Teaching with Primary Sources website. 2005.

Man Teaching in Classroom

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Man Teaching in Classroom, 1947. A man of European decent is standing in front of a group of young Transkei men, each of whom is sitting at a desk with a book open. He is teaching them contour plowing and other methods to stop certain agricultural problems like soil erosion. The school where he is teaching was designed by the government in 1912 to train Transkei youth Western methods and practices of agriculture that might help them with the problem of soil erosion. Photograph by Constance Stuart Larrabee, 1947.

In 1947, Constance Staurt Larrabee visited the Transkei. She was there researching the housing problems in Southern Africa.

There are no prints of this negative in the Constance Stuart Larrabee Collection. EEPA produced an 8x10 study print for reference purposes.

The cataloging of the Constance Stuart Larrabee Collection was supported by a grant from The Smithsonian Women's Committee.

Woman Teaching Cooking Class

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Woman Teaching Cooking Class, 1948. Photographic image of a woman standing at a table wearing an apron and making pastries on a cooking board. There are women sitting on the other side of the table watching. She is teaching a cooking class at the Donaldson Center in Orlando. At the Donaldson Community Center in Orlando, men and women pay a subscription fee of 50 cents per year and enjoy the recreational and sports facilities including boxing and classes in domestic science. Photograph by Constance Stuart Larrabee, 1948.

In 1945, Constance Stuart returned from her assignment as the first female South African war correspondent in World War II. Her reputation as a photographer grew. She maintained a photographic studio in Pretoria and Johannesburg. This series of images which she entitled "Johannesburg Black Man" depict life in downtown Johannesburg and in parts of the city, where Black South Africans lived, such as Sophiatown, Pimville, and Newclare. A second series of images focuses on Father Huddleston's work in Sophiatown. In 1948-1949, in the early days of apartheid, Stuart documented the building of the South Western townships (Soweto) and the way Africans adjusted to this new environment.

There are no prints of this negative in the Constance Stuart Larrabee Collection. EEPA produced an 8x10 study print for reference purposes.

The cataloging of the Constance Stuart Larrabee Collection was supported by a grant from The Smithsonian Women's Committee.

Woman Teaching Cooking Class

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Woman Teaching Cooking Class, 1948. Photographic image of a woman standing at a table wearing an apron and making pastries on a cooking board. There are women sitting on the other side of the table watching. She is teaching a cooking class at the Donaldson Center in Orlando. At the Donaldson Community Center in Orlando, men and women pay a subscription fee of 50 cents per year and enjoy the recreational and sports facilities including boxing and classes in domestic science. Photograph by Constance Stuart Larrabee, 1948.

In 1945, Constance Stuart returned from her assignment as the first female South African war correspondent in World War II. Her reputation as a photographer grew. She maintained a photographic studio in Pretoria and Johannesburg. This series of images which she entitled "Johannesburg Black Man" depict life in downtown Johannesburg and in parts of the city, where Black South Africans lived, such as Sophiatown, Pimville, and Newclare. A second series of images focuses on Father Huddleston's work in Sophiatown. In 1948-1949, in the early days of apartheid, Stuart documented the building of the South Western townships (Soweto) and the way Africans adjusted to this new environment.

There are no prints of this negative in the Constance Stuart Larrabee Collection. EEPA produced an 8x10 study print for reference purposes.

The cataloging of the Constance Stuart Larrabee Collection was supported by a grant from The Smithsonian Women's Committee.
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