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Expedition Building in Antarctica

Smithsonian Archives - History Div
Image located in Robert B. Klaverkamp's collection. Klaverkamp, an enlisted Naval Correspondent, participated in Operation Windmill. Malcolm Davis, zookeeper at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park, was also on the expedition and was assigned to the Icebreaker USS Edisto (AG-89) with the express purpose of collecting penguins, other birds, and leopard seals.

Image of an expedition building in Antarctica. It was erected by the expedition members from Operation Windmill. The caption on the bottom of the image reads, " My Castle on the Rhine." Operation Windmill (1947-1948) was an expedition established by the Chief of Naval Operations to train personnel, test equipment, and reaffirm American interests in Antarctica.

Operation Windmill Expedition Member Inside Building in Antarctica

Smithsonian Archives - History Div
Image located in Robert B. Klaverkamp's collection. Klaverkamp, an enlisted Naval Correspondent, participated in Operation Windmill. Malcolm Davis, zookeeper at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park, was also on the expedition and was assigned to the Icebreaker USS Edisto (AG-89) with the express purpose of collecting penguins, other birds, and leopard seals.

Image of a member of Operation Windmill standing inside a building in Antarctica. The man is surrounded by supplies. Operation Windmill (1947-1948) was an expedition established by the Chief of Naval Operations to train personnel, test equipment, and reaffirm American interests in Antarctica.

Transformation of the expeditionary enterprise: Perspectives on the Smithsonian's expeditionary history before 1948

Smithsonian Archives - History Div
Paul Michael Taylor is the director of the Asian Cultural History Program in the Division of Ethnology at Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History.

This article discusses the Smithsonian's involvement in expeditions throughout the world, including the 1926 expedition to New Guinea. It offers historical context for the Smithsonian's involvement in the American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land (AASEAL) in 1948.

Image is of Richard Peck using a movie camera to film villagers, Agintawa district, Nassau Mountains of New Guinea, 1926. Courtesy of the National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

Secretary Charles D. Walcott and His Fish

Smithsonian Archives - History Div
Also Negative Number SA-123.

Fourth Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution (1907-1927) Charles D. Walcott on a research expedition showing a fish that he caught. Walcott is seen here standing next to either a river or a lake with his fishing pole and a relatively large fish hanging from the hook. Pine trees and mountain peaks are visible in the background.

Operation Windmill Expedition Member with Penguin

Smithsonian Archives - History Div
Image located in Robert B. Klaverkamp's collection. Klaverkamp, an enlisted Naval Correspondent, participated in Operation Windmill. Malcolm Davis, zookeeper at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park, was also on the expedition and was assigned to the Icebreaker USS Edisto (AG-89) with the express purpose of collecting penguins, other birds, and leopard seals.

Image of an Operation Windmill expedition member standing near a penguin in Antarctica. Behind them is the Icebreaker USS Burton Island (AG-88), one of the two Icebreakers used during the expedition. Operation Windmill (1947-1948) was an expedition established by the Chief of Naval Operations to train personnel, test equipment, and reaffirm American interests in Antarctica.

Operation Windmill Expedition Members Unloading Equipment

Smithsonian Archives - History Div
Image located in Robert B. Klaverkamp's collection. Klaverkamp, an enlisted Naval Correspondent, participated in Operation Windmill. Malcolm Davis, zookeeper at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park, was also on the expedition and was assigned to the Icebreaker USS Edisto (AG-89) with the express purpose of collecting penguins, other birds, and leopard seals.

Image expedition members from Operation Windmill in Antarctica, unloading equipment for their work. A sled can be seen on the ice and a motorized sled with tread is being placed on the ice with a crane connected to either the Icebreaker the USS Burton Island (AG-88) or the USS Edisto (AG-89). Operation Windmill (1947-1948) was an expedition established by the Chief of Naval Operations to train personnel, test equipment, and reaffirm American interests in Antarctica.

Operation Windmill Expedition Members Photographing a Seal

Smithsonian Archives - History Div
Image located in Robert B. Klaverkamp's collection. Klaverkamp, an enlisted Naval Correspondent, participated in Operation Windmill. Malcolm Davis, zookeeper at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park, was also on the expedition and was assigned to the Icebreaker USS Edisto (AG-89) with the express purpose of collecting penguins, other birds, and leopard seals.

Image of four Operation Windmill expedition members in Antarctica photographing a seal. A tripod can be seen on the left and mountains are visible in the background. Operation Windmill (1947-1948) was an expedition established by the Chief of Naval Operations to train personnel, test equipment, and reaffirm American interests in Antarctica.

Operation Windmill Expedition Members Playing in the Snow

Smithsonian Archives - History Div
Image located in Robert B. Klaverkamp's collection. Klaverkamp, an enlisted Naval Correspondent, participated in Operation Windmill. Malcolm Davis, zookeeper at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park, was also on the expedition and was assigned to the Icebreaker USS Edisto (AG-89) with the express purpose of collecting penguins, other birds, and leopard seals.

Image of Operation Windmill expedition members playing in the snow. Other members are standing on the ship watching the men on the ground. Operation Windmill (1947-1948) was an expedition established by the Chief of Naval Operations to train personnel, test equipment, and reaffirm American interests in Antarctica. The icebreaker in the background of the image is the USS Burton Island (AG-88), signified by the number 88 near the front of the Icebreaker. A second Icebreaker, the USS Edisto (AG-89) was also used during the expedition.

Icebreaker Covered in Ice

Smithsonian Archives - History Div
Image located in Robert B. Klaverkamp's collection. Klaverkamp, an enlisted Naval Correspondent, participated in Operation Windmill. Malcolm Davis, zookeeper at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park, was also on the expedition and was assigned to the Icebreaker USS Edisto (AG-89) with the express purpose of collecting penguins, other birds, and leopard seals.

Image of an Icebreaker covered in ice. This Icebreaker could be either the USS Burton Island (AG-88) or the USS Edisto (AG-89). These ships were used for Operation Windmill (1947-1948), an expedition established by the Chief of Naval Operations to train personnel, test equipment, and reaffirm American interests in Antarctica. An expedition member can be seen in the left corner of the image.

Penguins in Antarctica

Smithsonian Archives - History Div
Image located in Robert B. Klaverkamp's collection. Klaverkamp, an enlisted Naval Correspondent, participated in Operation Windmill. Malcolm Davis, zookeeper at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park, was also on the expedition and was assigned to the Icebreaker USS Edisto (AG-89) with the express purpose of collecting penguins, other birds, and leopard seals.

Image of several large penguins and a baby penguin sitting over a nest. The image was taken during Operation Windmill (1947-1948) , an expedition established by the Chief of Naval Operations to train personnel, test equipment, and reaffirm American interests in Antarctica.

Operation Windmill Member Sitting in the Snow

Smithsonian Archives - History Div
Image located in Robert B. Klaverkamp's collection. Klaverkamp, an enlisted Naval Correspondent, participated in Operation Windmill. Malcolm Davis, zookeeper at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park, was also on the expedition and was assigned to the Icebreaker USS Edisto (AG-89) with the express purpose of collecting penguins, other birds, and leopard seals.

Image of a member of Operation Windmill sitting in the snow with a note near him that reads "Home Sweet Home." The man is holding a tin pan and smoking a cigarette. Operation Windmill (1947-1948) was an expedition established by the Chief of Naval Operations to train personnel, test equipment, and reaffirm American interests in Antarctica.

Landscape of Antarctica with Dark Rocks

Smithsonian Archives - History Div
Image located in Robert B. Klaverkamp's collection. Klaverkamp, an enlisted Naval Correspondent, participated in Operation Windmill. Malcolm Davis, zookeeper at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park, was also on the expedition and was assigned to the Icebreaker USS Edisto (AG-89) with the express purpose of collecting penguins, other birds, and leopard seals.

Image of the landscape of Antarctica with dark rocks amidst the snow and ice. The image was taken during Operation Windmill (1947-1948), an expedition established by the Chief of Naval Operations to train personnel, test equipment, and reaffirm American interests in Antarctica.

Landscape of Antarctica's Ice and Snow

Smithsonian Archives - History Div
Image located in Robert B. Klaverkamp's collection. Klaverkamp, an enlisted Naval Correspondent, participated in Operation Windmill. Malcolm Davis, zookeeper at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park, was also on the expedition and was assigned to the Icebreaker USS Edisto (AG-89) with the express purpose of collecting penguins, other birds, and leopard seals.

Image of the landscape of Antarctica. The image shows the ice and snow surface. The image was taken during Operation Windmill (1947-1948), an expedition established by the Chief of Naval Operations to train personnel, test equipment, and reaffirm American interests in Antarctica.

Navy Helicopter Flying Over Antarctica

Smithsonian Archives - History Div
Image located in Robert B. Klaverkamp's collection. Klaverkamp, an enlisted Naval Correspondent, participated in Operation Windmill. Malcolm Davis, zookeeper at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park, was also on the expedition and was assigned to the Icebreaker USS Edisto (AG-89) with the express purpose of collecting penguins, other birds, and leopard seals.

Image of a Navy helicopter flying over the coast of Antarctica. Under the helicopter in the water is either the USS Burton Island (AG-88) or the USS Edisto (AG-89), ships used for the Operation Windmill expedition. Operation Windmill (1947-1948) was an expedition established by the Chief of Naval Operations to train personnel, test equipment, and reaffirm American interests in Antarctica.

Secretary Charles D. Walcott and Men at a Field Camp

Smithsonian Archives - History Div
Fourth Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution (1907-1927) Charles D. Walcott at camp in the field. In this image, Secretary Walcott is seen here wearing a hat with an upturned brim and walking behind four unidentified men. One man is sharpening an ax blade. The other three men are in the process of skinning some small animals, either beavers or woodchucks. Tents are visible in the background.

Breaking Ice in Antarctica during Operation Windmill

Smithsonian Archives - History Div
Image located in Robert B. Klaverkamp's collection. Klaverkamp, an enlisted Naval Correspondent, participated in Operation Windmill. Malcolm Davis, zookeeper at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park, was also on the expedition and was assigned to the Icebreaker USS Edisto (AG-89) with the express purpose of collecting penguins, other birds, and leopard seals.

Image of an Icebreaker, either the USS Burton Island (AG-88) or the USS Edisto (AG-89) moving through the ice during Operation Windmill. Operation Windmill (1947-1948), an expedition established by the Chief of Naval Operations to train personnel, test equipment, and reaffirm American interests in Antarctica.

USS Burton Island (AG 88) in Antarctica

Smithsonian Archives - History Div
Image located in Robert B. Klaverkamp's collection. Klaverkamp, an enlisted Naval Correspondent, participated in Operation Windmill. Malcolm Davis, zookeeper at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park, was also on the expedition and was assigned to the Icebreaker USS Edisto (AG-89) with the express purpose of collecting penguins, other birds, and leopard seals.

Image of the USS Burton Island (AG-88) off the coast of Antarctica. The number 88 on the ship indicates that it is the USS Burton Island. A second Icebreaker ,the USS Edisto (AG-89), was also used during the expedition. Operation Windmill (1947-1948) was an expedition established by the Chief of Naval Operations to train personnel, test equipment, and reaffirm American interests in Antarctica.

The USS Burton Island (AG-88) and The USS Edisto (AG-89) in Antarctica

Smithsonian Archives - History Div
Image located in Robert B. Klaverkamp's collection. Klaverkamp, an enlisted Naval Correspondent, participated in Operation Windmill. Malcolm Davis, zookeeper at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park, was also on the expedition and was assigned to the Icebreaker USS Edisto (AG-89) with the express purpose of collecting penguins, other birds, and leopard seals.

Image of the USS Burton Island (AG-88) to the left and the USS Edisto (AG-89) to the right breaking ice in Antarctica. A sled and skis can be seen in the ice. The two ships were used in Operation Windmill from 1947-1948. Operation Windmill was an expedition established by the Chief of Naval Operations to train personnel, test equipment, and reaffirm American interests in Antarctica.

Icebreaker with Equipment in Antarctica

Smithsonian Archives - History Div
Image located in Robert B. Klaverkamp's collection. Klaverkamp, an enlisted Naval Correspondent, participated in Operation Windmill. Malcolm Davis, zookeeper at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park, was also on the expedition and was assigned to the Icebreaker USS Edisto (AG-89) with the express purpose of collecting penguins, other birds, and leopard seals.

Aerial image of of either the USS Burton Island (AG-88) or the USS Edisto (AG-89), ships used for Operation Windmill. A helicopter and a plane can be seen on the deck of the ship. Operation Windmill (1947-1948) was an expedition established by the Chief of Naval Operations to train personnel, test equipment, and reaffirm American interests in Antarctica.

The USS Burton Island (AG-88) and the USS Edisto (AG-89) Breaking Ice

Smithsonian Archives - History Div
Image located in Robert B. Klaverkamp's collection. Klaverkamp, an enlisted Naval Correspondent, participated in Operation Windmill. Malcolm Davis, zookeeper at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park, was also on the expedition and was assigned to the Icebreaker USS Edisto (AG-89) with the express purpose of collecting penguins, other birds, and leopard seals.

Image of the USS Burton Island (AG-88) and the USS Edisto (AG-89) breaking ice in Antarctica, for Operation Windmill. The USS Burton Island can be seen to the left of the image with the crew standing on deck. The USS Edisto is in the bottom of the image and it is connected to the USS Burton by a rope. The caption at the bottom of the image reads: "Operation Iceikle." Operation Windmill (1947-1948) was an expedition established by the Chief of Naval Operations to train personnel, test equipment, and reaffirm American interests in Antarctica.

USS Burton Island (AG-88) at the South Pole

Smithsonian Archives - History Div
Image located in Robert B. Klaverkamp's collection. Klaverkamp, an enlisted Naval Correspondent, participated in Operation Windmill. Malcolm Davis, zookeeper at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park, was also on the expedition and was assigned to the Icebreaker USS Edisto (AG-89) with the express purpose of collecting penguins, other birds, and leopard seals.

Image of the USS Burton Island (AG-88) at the South Pole. The USS Burton Island and the USS Edisto (AG-89) were the two ships used for Operation Windmill. The caption at the bottom reads: "USS Burton Island At South Pole." Operation Windmill (1947-1948) was an expedition established by the Chief of Naval Operations to train personnel, test equipment, and reaffirm American interests in Antarctica.

M.H. Moynihan & C. Lehman in Colombia

Smithsonian Archives - History Div
Martin H. Moynihan (1928-1996) and Carlos Lehman, director of the Natural History Museum in Cali, Colombia, conducting field work in Purace Park, Magdelena Slope, Colombia, in June 10, 1969. Moynihan was an ethologist and in 1957 became Resident Naturalist and Director (1957-1973) of a small field station on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, later named the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. He transformed the station into a major research institution in tropical biology. Moynihan was a world authority on animal behavior, with major contributions to the study of communication in birds, primates and cephalopods.

North Carolina Eclipse Expedition of 1900

Smithsonian Archives - History Div
There are addition images of this expedition in Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 95, Box 56, Folder 5. See Negative Number a3590 for a more detailed description of the image below.

Smithsonian Institution Annual Report for the year 1900, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1901.

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory staff, including Secretary Samuel P. Langley, and acting director (and later fifth Smithsonian Secretary), Charles Greeley Abbot, travel to Wadesboro, North Carolina, to observe an eclipse of the sun.

New STRI Research Vessel Urraca

Smithsonian Archives - History Div
Featured in Torch, June 1994

The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute's new research vessel, Urraca, named after a Panamanian Indian warrior, arrived in Panama in April 1994. Built in England in 1987, the Urraca has a crew of five and can accommodate scientific parties of up to 10. The research vessel is equipped with laboratories, darkroom, scuba-diving equipment, small boats and the latest in communications and navigation equipment. The vessel will give scientists the opportunity to work much farther afield, with larger and more sophisticated equipment.
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