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Japanese Protractor, 1876 World's Fair

National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
This brass circular protractor is divided by single degrees and marked every thirty degrees in the clockwise direction with Japanese characters facing outwards and representing the Chinese zodiac: mouse, cow, tiger, rabbit, dragon, snake, horse, sheep, monkey, chicken, dog, and boar. Four arms extend toward the center of the protractor and meet around an open circle 3 cm. in diameter. The circle is open, except for a protrusion containing a pinhole at the origin point.

The Japanese Empire Department of Education assembled an extensive exhibit of books, reports, examinations, maps, photographs, paintings, classroom equipment, medical apparatus, and drawing instruments for the 1876 World's Fair, the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia. Five types of protractors were included in the display, two of which survive in the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History.

See also ID Number MA.261305.

Japanese Protractor, 1876 World's Fair

National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
The Japanese Empire Department of Education displayed this circular brass protractor at the 1876 World's Fair, the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia. A notch for accessing the origin point is cut into the fourth quadrant of the crossbars spanning the diameter of the protractor. The protractor is marked every thirty degrees in the clockwise direction with Japanese characters for the twelve animals in the Chinese zodiac: mouse, cow, tiger, rabbit, dragon, snake, horse, sheep, monkey, chicken, dog, and boar. The top of each symbol faces the center of the protractor. The government of Japan aimed to demonstrate its nation's modernity and progress. In fact, Japan's Department of Education had just been established in 1870 to replace an Educational Board and to assume a more active role in the management of primary, middle, and secondary schools. John Eaton, the U.S. Commissioner of Education, arranged for the transfer of the entire exhibit in which this protractor appeared to the Bureau of Education (then part of the Department of the Interior) for a planned museum. The museum closed in 1906 due to high maintenance costs, and much of the collection was transferred to the Smithsonian in 1910. No information about the maker of this protractor is known. See also ID Number MA.261306. References: Japan, Department of Education, An Outline History of Japanese Education: Prepared for the Philadelphia International Exhibition, 1876 (New York: D. Appleton, 1876), 121–122, 191–202; U.S. Centennial Commission, International Exhibition, 1876. Reports and Awards, ed. Francis A. Walker (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1880), viii:143, 335; U.S. Bureau of Education, Annual Report of the Commissioner (1876), ccxi–ccxii.

1830 - 1850 Mary Willcox Taylor's Fort Dearborn Quilt

National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
"There was exhibited at the late Mechanical Fair held at Chicago, Ill., by Mr. C. Taylor, of that place, a quilt composed of 9,800 pieces of silk, each of which was about an inch square and all sewed with exceeding beauty and neatness. Its chief charm, however, was the great skill evinced in the ingenious blending of colors, so as to produce a proper effect in the representation of various figures which ornamented it in every part. A brilliant sun shown in the centre, the moon and stars beamed out from one corner, while in another appeared a storm in the heavens, with lowering clouds and flashes of lightning. Around the border were various designs illustrative of the season and the rapid growth of the western country. At one place appeared a barren heath, with Indians and hunters roaming over it; next, a trading post, as the first entrance of civilization; next, a military station, with the glorious banner of our country streaming from the flagstaff; then a city, and steamboats and vessels gliding in and out of port." "Great Quilt," Scientific American, Volume 5, Number 12, December 8, 1849. The quilt described in the 1849 Scientific American, may well have been Mary Willcox Taylor's silk quilt made between 1830 and 1850 and brought to the Museum in 1953. Although the pieced and appliquéd quilt was made in Detroit, Michigan it was said that Mary at one time had lived at Fort Dearborn. In one corner of the quilt is depicted a military fort complete with a prominent U.S. flag on a pole. Fort Dearborn was completed in 1804, burned by Indians in 1812 and rebuilt in 1816. It was demolished in 1856 to accommodate the rapidly expanding city of Chicago. Today, a plaque located in the Chicago Loop recognizes the earlier Fort Dearborn. Mary used many shades of silk, even a few embellished with water-colors to depict the skies from dawn to dusk, sunny to stormy. Vignettes on the outer edges of the quilt are detailed and precise using many different fabrics and techniques. They portray scenes of the growth and changes in Chicago during the first half of the nineteenth century. All the diamond shaped pieces are quilted in an outline pattern. Now, unfortunately too fragile to exhibit, this example of a nineteenth-century pictorial quilt displays the skills and artistic ability of Mary Willcox Taylor.

1856 - 1857 Virginia Ivey's Russellville Fair Quilt

National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Virginia Ivey designed this white-work quilt to capture the excitement and lively interest of a county fairground in the mid-nineteenth century. The center circle, 40 inches in diameter, is edged by a board fence complete with gate. Inside the fence is the quilted inscription: "1856 A REPRESENTATION OF THE FAIR GROUND NEAR RUSSELLVILLE KENTUCKY." The central judges' pavilion with the judges, encircled by horses and riders, fair buildings and workers, animals of all sorts, and of course the fairgoers themselves, all in a state of arrested motion, contribute to the unique design.

Virginia Ivey's needlework and artistic skills resulted in a quilt that depicts the smallest details of fence rail, walking stick and saddle, or men shaking hands in greeting. The surface outline was quilted using two layers of fine white cotton with a thin cotton fiber filling, stitched through all three layers. The sculpted effect of the design was achieved with stuffed and corded quilting techniques and grounded with stippling, 12 stitches to the inch. The quilt is finished with a 4½-inch woven and knotted cotton fringe. Her needlework is often described as using needle and thread much like another artist might use pen or brush.

Virginia Mason Ivey was born on October 26, 1828 in Tennessee. She was the daughter of Mourning Mason and Capt. David Ivey, a farmer and soldier in the War of 1812. According to family information her father named her after his native state. When Virginia was a young child the family moved to Keysburg, a small town in Logan County, Kentucky. Aunt Jennie, as she was known to the family, according to her niece Ida B. Lewis, "never had any lessons in art-just-her own talent and creative instinct. She loved beauty in many forms and had a most attractive personality and was quite a pretty woman." Virginia Ivey never married and when she died she left this quilt to her niece, Lillian Virginia Lewis.

"I have a quilt which I value most highly. It was made by my aunt, Virginia M. Ivey. I cannot care for it much longer and I should like very much to know that it will have excellent care and that it will give pleasure to many people who will appreciate its remarkable workmanship and its great beauty". So wrote Lillian V. Lewis about the quilt she donated to the Museum in 1949. Now over 150 years old, this elaborate example of white-work quilting, "A REPRESENTATION OF THE FAIR GROUND NEAR RUSSELLVILLE KENTUCKY 1856," has been exhibited at fairs and museums and has won many prizes.

Kodak Bullet Camera

National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
This Eastman Kodak "Bullet" camera commemorates the New York World’s Fair (1939-1940.) The camera’s faceplate features the Fair’s dominant architectural features, the Trylon and the Perisphere.

Kodak Baby Brownie Camera

National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
This Eastman Kodak "Baby Brownie" camera commemorates the New York World’s Fair (1939-1940). The camera’s faceplate features the Fair’s dominant architectural features, the Trylon and the Perisphere.

Sawyer's View-Master

National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
The view master was first introduced at the New York World's Fair (1939-1940.) Made by Sawyer's Photo Services, the device showed stereoscopic three-dimensional pictures. Originally intended as an educational device for adults, the view master soon become a popular children's toy. This example is a commemorative item from the Fair.

Westinghouse World's Fair Pin

National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Souvenir pin commemorating the New York World's Fair (1939-1940.) The pin features the Westinghouse Electric Company's robotic mascot "Elektro."

Dividers from Japan

National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
The Japanese Empire Department of Education displayed these oversized wooden dividers at the 1876 Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia. One leg partially fits into a slot in the other leg. A string holds the legs together at the joint, but originally there was probably a metal screw there. A metal point, 3 1/8" long, extends from one leg. A wooden peg, supposedly for holding a crayon, is attached to the other leg. The dividers unfold into a 30" straight line, and their large size may indicate that they were used for classroom demonstrations. On the fair and the fate of the exhibit, see 261313.

Japanese Diagonal Rule with Slide

National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
This brass rule has six diagonal scales (each 1-1/4" or 3.1 cm wide) next to each other, an unmarked slide (3.3 cm wide) with beveled edges at the top and bottom, and a stand or endpiece (3.3 cm deep). The Japanese Empire Department of Education displayed this object at the 1876 World's Fair, the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia. It was subsequently transferred to the U.S. Bureau of Education (then part of the Department of the Interior) for a planned museum. The museum closed in 1906 due to high maintenance costs, and the object was transferred to the Smithsonian in 1910.

Other educational mathematical objects exhibited by Japan in 1876 include MA.261298, MA.261301, MA.261302, MA.261305, MA.261306, and MA.261313.

1877 - 1878 Caroline Granger's Prize-winning Child's Quilt

National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Agricultural fairs flourished in the mid-nineteenth century and exhibitions of women's needlework skills drew large audiences as they competed for prizes and recognition. A bronze medal, designed by William Barber, was inscribed, “Awarded to Mrs. Joseph Granger for the best Crib Quilt – Worcester, Mass. 1878” by the New England Agricultural Society. A certificate from the office of the New England Agricultural Society states that: “Mrs. Joseph Granger Worcester, Mass. received a Bronze medal awarded at the New England and Worcester Agricultural Fairs, held in the City of Worcester, Mass. September, 1878, for the best Crib Quilt.” Mrs. Joseph (Caroline) Granger’s granddaughter, Claire L. Meyer, donated the quilt, medal, and certificate to the Smithsonian in 1972.

A note with the quilt, written by one of Caroline Granger’s children, states: “Mother’s quilt all hand quilted she made her own designs with a pin. She got first prize at the Sturbridge fair and every time she showed it at the New England fair – there was even questioning that it was machine made so every body had to examine it closely.” Another note, in different hand, that was with the quilt states: “Couverture de berceau piquee a la main por Mmes Joseph Granger qui importa le primier prix – (Medaille d’or) ‘New England Fair’ de 1878.”

The all-white child’s quilt, according to the note referred to in French as a “cradle cover,” is made of cotton. The stylized floral center medallion on a diagonal grid background is finely quilted, 12 stitches per inch. The 9-inch border is quilted with an undulating vine and flowers on a background of parallel diagonal lines. Caroline Granger’s design and precise hand quilting are definitely of prize-winning quality.

Marie Caroline Lamoureux was born on March 3, 1850 in St-Ours, Richelieu, Quebec, Canada. She was the daughter of Antoine Lamoureux and Marie Elizabeth Moge. On January 30, 1873, she married Joseph H. Granger in N. Grosvenordale, Connecticut. They lived in Worcester, Massachusetts, and had twelve children. Two children, born in 1873 and 1875, died before their first birthdays. A daughter, Marie Ida, was about two when Caroline’s quilt won a prize in 1878 and another daughter, Alam Victoria, was born in late 1878. Caroline died on June 9, 1936.

Claire L. Meyer, the Granger’s granddaughter, wrote; “Many thanks for your letter of July 7, 1972 regarding a crib quilt made by my grandmother a hundred years ago. I am also enclosing for your consideration a quilt machine stitched by my grandfather! . . . I hope it will be worthy of the national collection.” The two quilts are worthy, and provide an interesting contrast between the precise handwork of Mrs. Caroline Granger and the equally precise machine stitching of Mr. Joseph Granger.

1850 - 1854 Mary C. Pickering's Applique Quilt

National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
In the mid-nineteenth century, Mary Carpenter Pickering made this appliquéd quilt while living in St. Clairsville, Ohio. According to family information, she began work on the quilt when a friend, John Bruce Bell, left St. Clairsville to accompany a wagon train to the Oregon Territory. He returned eight years later, and they were married. Her grandson, Robert S. Bell, wrote that Mary made the quilt “to make the time go more quickly” while John Bell was away in the Oregon Territory. The quilt is said to have won a blue ribbon at the Ohio State Fair in the early 1850s.

Baskets of flowers are appliquéd on nine blocks. These motifs are raw-edged, held down by close buttonhole stitching. The blocks alternate with all-white blocks that feature stuffed motifs of fruit and flower baskets, grapes and leaves, sprays of leaves and flowers, and a wreath. An appliquéd flowering-vine border completes the overall design of the quilt.

The background quilting patterns are parallel horizontal and diagonal lines about ¼-inch apart, 13 stitches to the inch. Roller-printed cottons are used for appliquéd motifs; the lining is plain white cotton. “Mary C. Pickering. St. Clairsville Ohio” is prominently back-stitched in black silk on one of the white blocks.

Mary Carpenter Pickering was born in Belmont County, Ohio, in 1831. She married John Bruce Bell on September 3, 1861, at New Athens, Ohio. Shortly after their marriage, John Bell joined the Union Army in 1862 for service in the Civil War. He was honorably discharged from the army in 1863 with disabilities that lasted for the rest of his life. They moved to Keokuk County, Iowa, in 1864 and raised nine children, three still living in the 1890s. Mary died in 1900. Her prize-winning appliquéd quilt was handed down in her family for three generations before being donated to the Smithsonian in 1981.

Japanese Demonstration Rule with Vernier

National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
The Japanese Empire Department of Education displayed this oversized wooden ruler at the 1876 World's Fair, the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia. The left and right sides are evenly divided into nine units of 2-7/16" or 6.2 cm. These units are subdivided into tenths and numbered on the right by tens from 0 to 90. A sliding piece, or vernier, in the center of the rule has nine units of 0.55 cm on the left side and nine units of 0.65 cm on the right. The vernier is numbered in ascending order on the left and in descending order on the right. An eyehook is attached to the top of the instrument for hanging in a classroom. A red and white label on the bottom front is marked: No. 46 (/) M. The object arrived with another label marked: Dai NihonTeikoku Monbusho (Japanese Empire Department of Education). Since the intervals on the rule are evenly divided rather than logarithmic, it seems likely that this rule was used for measuring and not for calculating. After the exhibition, John Eaton, the U.S. Commissioner of Education, arranged for the transfer of Japan's entire exhibit to the Bureau of Education (then part of the Department of the Interior) for a planned museum. The museum closed in 1906 due to high maintenance costs, and much of the collection was transferred to the Smithsonian in 1910. Other educational mathematical objects exhibited by Japan in 1876 include MA.261301, MA.261302, MA.261305, MA.261306, and MA.261313. References: Japan. Department of Education, An Outline History of Japanese Education: Prepared for the Philadelphia International Exhibition, 1876 (New York: D. Appleton, 1876), 121–122, 191–202; U.S. Centennial Commission, International Exhibition, 1876. Reports and Awards, ed. Francis A. Walker (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1880), viii:143, 335; U.S. Bureau of Education, Annual Report of the Commissioner (1876), ccxi–ccxii.

1887 Clara E. Houghton's Comforter

National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
"To be made for the Industrial Exhibition March 23-24 1887. H.H.S. Clara E. Houghton (Please return).” No other information was provided with the donation. A large Industrial Exhibition opened in Minneapolis, Minnesota, in August 1886 and continued to be a huge success through 1887. A Clara Houghton was listed as a teacher in 1876 in Stearns County, Minnesota, (District 101) in the 1915 History of Stearns County, Minnesota, Vol. II by William Bell Mitchell. Probably the quilt was made in Minnesota and exhibited for a short time during the Exhibition. Floral motifs in pink, brown, and blue, decorate the roller-printed cotton used for the central part of this comforter. Its 7½-inch border is roller-printed cotton with geometric motifs. It is not quilted, but tied every 5 inches with a heavy 3-ply S-twist cotton thread, keeping the cotton filling in place.

Japanese Scale Rule with Chain

National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
This brass rule with chain was displayed by the Japanese Empire Department of Education at the 1876 Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia and then was held by the Museum of the U.S. Bureau of Education before transfer to the Smithsonian in 1910. The scale on the rule has six units of 19/32" (1.5 cm). Two of the units are subdivided into 25 parts; the other two are subdivided into ten parts. The chain is approximately 29-1/2" (75 cm) long and is attached to an eye at one end of the rule. Larger links are inserted in the chain at 12" and 24" from the rule. A small octagonal weight (about 1/2" or 1.5 cm long) is attached to the end of the chain. The accession record identifies this instrument as a ryosan shaku (depth gauge for cannon barrels). For more information on the exhibition, see MA.261298 and MA.261313.

Japanese Scale Rule

National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
This 18 cm brass ruler is divided to millimeters along one edge. An oval (0) is stamped over the dividing line for the fifth, tenth, and fifteenth units. The other edge is divided into six units of 1-3/16" (3 cm). Each unit is thus roughly equivalent to the sun, a traditional Japanese unit of length that is 1/10 of a shaku, a "foot" measure. The units are subdivided into 50 parts. Each unit is marked with a small "0." The fifth units has a row of three zeroes above the "0." The Japanese Empire Department of Education displayed this rule at the 1876 Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia. It then was held by the Museum of the U.S. Bureau of Education before transfer to the Smithsonian in 1910. For more information, see MA.261298 and MA.261313.

Japanese Scale Rule

National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
This 60 cm brass ruler is divided to millimeters along one edge. The scale is not numbered. The other edge is divided into 20 units of 1-3/16" (3 cm). Each unit is thus roughly equivalent to the sun, a traditional Japanese unit of length that is 1/10 of a shaku, a "foot" measure. Four of the units are subdivided into 50 parts; the other 16 are subdivided into 20 parts. Each unit is marked with a small "0." The fifth and fifteenth units have a row of three zeroes above the "0." The tenth unit has a zero, a row of three zeroes, and another zero. The Japanese Empire Department of Education displayed this rule at the 1876 Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia. It then was held by the Museum of the U.S. Bureau of Education before transfer to the Smithsonian in 1910. For more information, see MA.261298 and MA.261313.

Japanese Scale Rule

National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
This heavy brass ruler is divided to millimeters along one edge. The other edge is divided into ten units of 1-3/16" (3 cm). Each unit is thus roughly equivalent to the sun, a traditional Japanese unit of length that is 1/10 of a shaku. Two of the units are subdivided into 50 parts; the other eight are subdivided into 20 parts. Neither of the scales are sequentially numbered. Instead, the units of each scale are marked with a small "0," with an additional three zeroes above the "0" at the center of the scale of equal parts. The Japanese Empire Department of Education displayed this rule at the 1876 Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia. It then was held by the Museum of the U.S. Bureau of Education before transfer to the Smithsonian in 1910. For more information, see MA.261298 and MA.261313.

Japanese Folding Scale Rule

National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
This metal rule unfolds to a length of 14-7/8" (38 cm). One side is divided into ten units of 1-1/2" (3.7 cm). The units are subdivided into 20 parts. The hinge is shaped like a protractor. It is divided unevenly into five units marked with Japanese characters that have not been translated. From the right, the divisions are at approximately 10°, 30°, 60°, 90°, and 135°. The other side has a scale 30.3 cm long that is divided into ten sun, a traditional Japanese unit of length that is 1/10 of a shaku, a "foot" measure. Each unit is 1-3/16" and is subdivided into 20 parts. The Japanese Empire Department of Education displayed this rule at the 1876 Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia. It then was held by the Museum of the U.S. Bureau of Education before transfer to the Smithsonian in 1910. For more information, see MA.261298 and MA.261313.

Japanese Scale Rule with Caliper

National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
An iron caliper with only one bar is nailed to one end of this bamboo rule. The caliper extends back about 3". The ruler is divided into 17 units of 1-3/16" (3 cm), and the units are subdivided into tenths. Each unit is roughly equivalent to one sun, a traditional Japanese unit of length that is 1/10 of a shaku, a "foot" measure. Bulls-eyes mark every five units. A red and white sticker on the caliper is marked: 10th (/) No 222. The Japanese Empire Department of Education displayed this rule at the 1876 Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia. It then was held by the Museum of the U.S. Bureau of Education until it was transferred to the Smithsonian in 1910. For more information, see MA.261298 and MA.261313.

1905 Hulda and Ellen Larson's Pan-American Exposition Quilt

National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Hulda Larson and her daughter Ellen made this quilt to commemorate the 1901 Pan-American Exposition held in Buffalo, N. Y. Souvenir stamped muslin squares were sold at the Exposition and later in stores to be embroidered and assembled for a quilt. Referred to as “penny squares” because they were often sold in packets of 50 for 50 cents, they became popular reminders of events and sights at the Exposition. Dated “May 1, 1905” this quilt incorporates many of those souvenir blocks.

Fifty-six 7 ½-inch white blocks were outline-embroidered in red, many depicting buildings of the 1901 Pan-American Exposition. Hulda and Ellen used over 30 of these motifs for their quilt. A block labeled, “Wm McKinley Our Martyred President,” was added to the original design after his assassination at the Exposition on September 6, 1901.

The blocks also included embroidered portraits of Mrs. McKinley, , President Theodore Roosevelt, his daughter, Alice, and Mrs. Roosevelt, Edith Caro, who married the widowed president in 1886.

In the center is the official logo of the Exposition. Blocks with an American eagle, flag, and shield add a patriotic element. Two blocks with buffalo motifs, “Put Me Off at Buffalo” and “I Am A,” and other animal and floral motif blocks were used to complete the quilt. When the fair ended its buildings were demolished, except for the New York State building that later became the Buffalo and Erie Canal Historical Society.

Using a grid system of the numbers 1 to 7 across the top and A thru G along the left side the following blocks were connected to the Pan-American Exposition. The inscriptions on each block are embroidered in red.

A2 – “Indian Congress and Village”; A5 – “Stadium”; A6 – “Ohio Building”

B1 – “Trained Wild Animals”; B2 – “Ethnology Building”; B6 – “Service Building”; B7 – “Infant Incubator”

C1 – “Fair Japan”; C3 – “Johnstown Flood”; C5 – “Darkness & Dawn - Fall of Babylon”; C7 – “Government Building”

D1 – “Agriculture Building”; D2 – “Mrs. McKinley”; D3 – “President Roosevelt”; D4 (seal) “Pan-American Exposition. 1901. Buffalo. N.Y. U.S.A.” D5 – “Mrs. Roosevelt”; D6 – “Wm. McKinley-Our Martyred President” D7 – “Alaskan Building”

E2 – “Electric Tower”; E3 – “New England Building”; E5 – “Old Plantation”; E6 – “Temple of Music Where President McKinley was shot”; E7 – “Cleopatra's Temple”

F1 – “Horticulture Building”; F2 – “Aerio Cycle”; F3 – “Machinery and Transportation Building”; F4 – “Panopticon”; F5 - “Phillipine Village”; F6 – “Triumphal Bridge”; F7 – “Beautiful Orient”

G2 – “Louisiana Purchase Building”; G3 – “House Upside Down”; G4 – “Hawaiian Village & Kileaua Volcano”; G5 – “A Trip to the Moon”; G6 – “Wisconsin Building”; G7 – “Darkest Africa”

This machine-quilted example of redwork has a 3-inch white ruffle, edged with red embroidery. It has a white cotton lining and cotton filling. The blocks are machine-joined, and the lining is machine-stitched. Stem and feather stitches were used for the embroidery.

Hulda Fredricka ParsDotter was born April 21, 1858, in Vimmerby, Sweden, and married Anders James Larson on June 23, 1877. In 1882 they came to Jamestown, N. Y. Their daughter Ellen Sophia Cecilia was born in Vimmerby, Sweden, on August 11, 1879. Other daughters born in the United States were Dora (about 1889), Della (about 1891) and Arlene (about 1896). Ellen married C. Emil Swanson in 1903 in Jamestown. Ellen died on January 1, 1925. Hulda died October 4, 1949, at the age of 91. Daughter Dora married Arthur Anderson and their daughter, Alberta,married Russell Weise. It was their daughter, Judith Anderson Weise, who donated her great-grandmother and great-aunt’s Pan-American Exposition Commemorative quilt to the Museum in 1985.

Shofar

National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
The shofar, one of the earliest known musical instruments, is usually made from a ram's horn. Used in biblical times to signal important events, it is also blown on High Holy Days (10 days in the fall of the year). It is sounded many times during the services of Rosh ha-Shanah (the Jewish New Year) and once to conclude Yom Kippur (the Day of Atonement).

The blasts of the instrument are meant to wake slumbering souls to review their actions of the past year, to make amends, and to renew their devotion to work for the social and communal good in the coming year. This shofar is of a form typical of central European instruments, with a straightened shaft and flattened mouthpiece. It belonged to Curator Cyrus Adler's grandfather, Leopold Sulzberger, who was born in Germany. Sulzberger arrived in the United States in 1838, and died in 1881.

Comic Book, "Action Comics"

National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
This is an "Action Comics" Comic Book featuring Superman.

Superman’s June 1938 appearance in Action Comics No. 1 gave birth to the superhero genre. Superman used his extraordinary powers to fight for “truth and justice.” The character’s popularity led to the creation of other costumed crime fighters such as Batman and Captain Marvel.

Futurama World's Fair Pin

National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Pin commemorating the New York World's Fair, held in Queens, 1939-1940. It reads " have seen the Future, General Motors Futurama."
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